This article further continues on earlier experiments. While using internal tunnels gave a logically ‘simple’ point-to-point network seen from a layer 3 point of view, it came with the drawback of complex header calculations, resulting in CPU hogging on devices capable of hardware switching. Using some route-maps to choose VRFs for flows proved interesting, but only in particular use cases. It didn’t make the troubleshooting any easier.

There is a better method for dealing with inter-VRF routing on a local device, but it requires a very different logic. Up until now, my articles described how to be able to select a next-hop inside another VRF. Route leaking using BGP, however, leverages a features of BGP that has been described in my blog before: the import and export of routing information in different VRFs.

How does it work? Well, since the BGP process can’t differentiate between VRFs based on names, but instead uses route-targets to uniquely identify routing tables, it’s the route target that matters. Usually, for MPLS-VPN, these numbers differ per VRF. This time, use the same number for two VRFs:

VRF-RouteLeaking1This will tell BGP later on to use the same routing table for both VRFs. Now if you configure BGP…

VRF-RouteLeaking2

… There’s still a separate configuration per VRF. How does the exchange happen? Well: for all routes that are known inside the BGP process. This means any routes from any BGP peer in one of the VRFs are automatically learned in both VRFs. But for static and connected routes, and routes from other routing protocols, you can do a controlled redistribution using route-maps or prefix lists. This way only the routes that need to be known in the other VRF are added.

VRF-RouteLeaking3

The routing table with automatically show routes pointing to different VRFs. On top of that, the forwarding does not require any headers to be added or removed to the packets, so it can be put directly into CEF, allowing for hardware forwarding. And for completeness: the BGP neighborships here are just for illustration of what happens, but no neighborship is required for this to function. BGP just needs to run on the device as a process.

Of course, this is just a simple setup. More complexity can always be added, as you can even use route-maps to set the route targets for some routes.

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